Paragoogè (GR): march in line. Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. DEA / G. NIMATALLAH / Getty Images. The origins of the hoplite are obscure, and no small matter of contention amongst historians. Sileraioi were also a group of ancient mercenaries most likely employed by the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse. [2] The Phalanx also became a source of political influence because men had to provide their own equipment to be a part of the army. Ultimately, Mantinea, and the preceding decade, severely weakened many Greek states, and left them divided and without the leadership of a dominant power. The second phase, an Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse in Sicily achieved no tangible result other than a large loss of Athenian ships and men. Naus (GR): ship. Skolops (GR): palisade stake. Logas (GR): picked soldier. Chiliarchès (GR): ‘commander of thousand’; officer. to the Present, New York, NY: Free Press, 1989. Miles missicius: discharged soldier. Certainly, by approximately 650 BC, as dated by the 'Chigi vase', the 'hoplite revolution' was complete. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states (the exact composition changing over time), allowing the pooling of resources and division of labour. Democracy was born at the agora in Athens. After burning Eretria, the Persians landed at Marathon. Parke, Herbert W., Greek Mercenary Soldiers: From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Eparchos (GR): officer. Lazenby, John F., "The Killing Zone," in Victor D. Hanson, (ed. Pritchett, Kendrick W., The Greek State at War, 5 Vols., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1975–1991. Polemistès (GR): warrior; soldier. Traditionally, this has been dated to the 8th century BC, and attributed to Sparta; but more recent views suggest a later date, towards the 7th century BC[citation needed]. Next time when searching the web for a clue, try using the search term “Ancient Greek military power crossword” or “Ancient Greek military power crossword clue” when searching for help with your puzzles. Hèmilochion (GR): half-file. Syzeuxis (GR): parallel formation. Peltarion (GR): light shield. Aichmophoros (GR): spearbearer. Hypozygion (GR): pack animal. Hamippos (GR): infantry skirmisher fighting mixed with the cavalry. Epibatès (GR): marine. Sphendonètès (GR): slinger. [clarification needed]. Perikephalaios (GR): helmet. These officers were armed as spearmen and they were required to fight in a phalanx formation. Drepanon (GR): battle-scythe. Lakedaimoon (GR): name of Spartan state. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. 125–166. As the Thebans were joined by many erstwhile Spartan allies, the Spartans were powerless to resist this invasion. Teichos: wall. Hetairos (GR): companion; (1) aristocratic warrior; (2) Macedonian heavy cavalryman. NAS Word Usage - Total: 38 Akontistès (GR): javelineer. The hoplite was a well-armed and armored citizen-soldier primarily drawn from the middle classes. These changes greatly increased the number of casualties and the disruption of Greek society. Krypteia (GR): ‘secret service’; Spartan death squad for keeping the helots in check. Symmachia (GR): alliance. Stoma (GR): front of a formation. In the early stages of Greek Warfare in the Archai… Hieros lochos (GR): ‘Sacred band’; Theban elite formation composed of 150 couples of male lovers. Proknèmis (GR): greave. Tetrarchès (GR): commander of four files. Alexander's fame is in no small part due to his success as a battlefield tactician; the unorthodox gambits he used at the battles of Issus and Gaugamela were unlike anything seen in Ancient Greece before. Trièrès (GR): trireme; oared warship with three levels of rowers. 233–260. Kataphraktos (GR): armoured soldier. They were a force to be reckoned with. One alternative to disrupting the harvest was to ravage the countryside by uprooting trees, burning houses and crops and killing all who were not safe behind the walls of the city. Auloi (GR): double reed-flutes. Machaira (GR): sword. Ancient Greek Culture 808 Words | 3 Pages. When this was combined with the primary weapon of the hoplite, 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) long spear (the doru), it gave both offensive and defensive capabilities. Ploion (GR): ship. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states, on a scale never seen before. Rhomphaia (GR): slashing blade; falchion. Dipèchiakè (GR): space of 2 cubits separating two tholepins in a file of oarsmen, probably some 98cm. Hornblower, Simon, "Sticks, Stones, and Spartans: The Sociology of Spartan Violence," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. Pais basilikos (GR): royal page. Hyperèsia (GR): 'auxiliary group'; naval crew in addition to the rowers and captain such as marines and deck hands. Athanatoi (GR): ‘immortals’; nickname of the infantry guard corps of the Persian king which was always kept at its establishment strength of 10.000 men by direct substitution of losses among its complement. Kausia (GR): Macedonian hat. Dance, according to Greek thought, was one of the civilizing activities, like wine-making and music. Systasis (GR): light infantry platoon. Hèmilochitès (GR): half-file-leader; NCO. Telamoon (GR): carrying strap. Skytale (GR): ‘stick’; (1) broken half of a stick used to verify the origin of a message; (2)Spartan ‘dogtags’ made of a wooden identification sign. However, from the very beginning, it was clear that the Spartan hegemony was shaky; the Athenians, despite their crushing defeat, restored their democracy but just one year later, ejecting the Sparta-approved oligarchy. Dromos (GR): charge on the run. led to the rise of the city-states (Poleis). Kopidion (GR): slashing knife. Pilos (GR): (1) felt cap; (2) metal helmet shaped like a pilos (GR). Many city-states made their submission to him, but others did not, notably including Athens and Sparta. Katoikos (GR): fief holder; military settler; soldier granted land to support himself. Greek and Bacchanalian Dance. Proptoosis (GR): levelling of spears to the front of the battle-line. Thoorakitès (GR): soldier wearing body armour. Pèdalia (GR): pair of rudders. Theme: Greek Military The themes represented throughout Gates of Fire, by Steven Pressfield, give us an idea as to how Greek society operated and what they valued. Syssitios (GR): ‘dining companion’; Spartan member of military mess association. Konijnendijk, Roel, Classical Greek Tactics: A Cultural History. Taxiarchos (GR): officer. Hekatontarchès (GR): ‘commander of hundred’; officer. ), Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience, London: Routledge, 1993. One major reason for Phillip's success in conquering Greece was the break with Hellenic military traditions that he made. from the Greek term for horse, hippios. Set-piece battles during this war proved indecisive and instead there was increased reliance on naval warfare, and strategies of attrition such as blockades and sieges. ), Hoplites, London: 1991, pp. Ancient Greek civilization, the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended about 1200 BCE, to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BCE. The war petered out after 394 BC, with a stalemate punctuated with minor engagements. Agora - The agora was the central meeting place in Ancient Greek cities. Zygios (GR): middle level oarsman on a trireme. Tensions resulting from this, and the rise of Athens and Sparta as pre-eminent powers during the war led directly to the Peloponnesian War, which saw further development of the nature of warfare, strategy and tactics. Monomachia (GR): single combat. Arithmos (GR): ‘number’; military unit. Pezos (GR): foot soldier; infantryman. Lineothoorax (GR): linen corselet. Mitrè (GR): abdominal armour. Krentz, Peter, "Deception in Archaic and Classical Greek Warfare," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. The Athenian general Iphicrates had his troops make repeated hit and run attacks on the Spartans, who, having neither peltasts nor cavalry, could not respond effectively. Hyssos (GR): spear; javelin. There was increased emphasis on navies, sieges, mercenaries and economic warfare. In non-military use,it was "a voluntary attitude of giving in, cooperating, assumingresponsibility, and carrying a burden". Thalamios (GR): oarsman on lowest level of a trireme. Tactically the Peloponnesian war represents something of a stagnation; the strategic elements were most important as the two sides tried to break the deadlock, something of a novelty in Greek warfare. ), Atlas of the Classical World, London: Nelson, 1959. Raising such a large army had denuded Athens of defenders, and thus any attack in the Athenian rear would cut off the Army from the City. All Greek words have been transcribed in the Latin alphabet. The Greek comes from aggelion which simply means "message or news." Zooiarchos (GR): elephant commander. Stratiootika (GR): (1) military affairs; (2) military service. Argyraspis (GR): ‘silvershield’; title of Macedonian infantry guard which is probably identical with the hypaspistai (GR). Machairophoros (GR): swordsman. Syntagmatarchès (GR): batallion commander. 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